The first poutines were invented in Quebec, and there are many, unconfirmed claims to have invented the poutine which date from the late 50s through the 1970s in the Victoriaville area, about 1 hour out of Montreal.
The earliest date associated with its invention is 1957, which is when restaurantuer Fernand LaChance of Warwick claims that a take-out customer requested french fries, cheese and in a bag, to which the restaurantuer responded: "ça va faire une maudite poutine" (That's going to make a damn mess"). Adding sauce to the mixture was a later innovation. LaChance's restaurant eventually closed, and so there exists no present day monument to this earliest claim.
Restauranter Jean-Paul Roy, owner of Roy le Jucep, from photograph on the wall at his resaurant. Caption: "The Inventor of Poutine Jean Paul Roy"
The owner of restaurant Roy le Jucep (1050 boul. St. Joseph, Drummondville Quebec; website , Jean-Paul Roy, also claims the title of "The Inventor of Poutine", dating his claim in 1964. Jucep's claim stems from having made the potatoe sauce, which he was slathering on fries sold in his restaurant; he also sold bags of cheese curds - which are sold widely in the region, bought as a handy, portable snack - which he noticed customers were adding to his fries and sauce. Soon after, he made the combination a regular menu item. (See Review for a review of Roy le Jucep poutine).
By the late 1970s, poutine had made its way to New York and New Jersey, where it is often sold as an "off menu" item in a modified form -- 'disco fries'. This concoction is french fries, a beef gravy, and shredded cheese. The cheese melts completely, mixes in with the gravy, but the dish is a mess, just the same, and a delicious one enjoyed by late-night partiers of the disco crowds in the days before low-fat, Atkins and smart drinks.
The cheese used in a classic poutine is not simply a cheddar, nor simply a cheddar curd. It is fromage beaucronne, made specifically in the
Quebec natives can be heard to exclaim "That's not poutine!" in response to the many variants which have popped up. But, as with any cuisine too good (and too easy) to keep a lid on, poutine has found many different expressions. Like burritos, poutines are found with a wide range of styles, both in high-end and low-end restaurants, as well as at home.
Within Montreal, one can find "Poutine Italian", in which a marianara sauce is used. Occaisionally, one comes across a poutine in which an actual gravy (using a roux from flour and drippings, combined with milk or cream) is unapologetically used instead of the classic sauce. At-home chefs whip up a poutine with bottled BBQ sauce for a quick bite for the kids (or themselves).
It's historically unclear what kind of sauce is the basis for classic poutine. The origins are obscured somewhat by the fact that Natives strongly prefer, in their classic recipes, an "instant" kind made by the chain restaurant St. Hubert, available in packages at grocery stores. Simple comparisons around town make it appear that the classic sauce is a chicken-based velouté (see Recipes ), which should not be confused with a "gravy", the important difference being that stock is used as the base in a velouté, while milk or cream is used in gravy. And, nonetheless, gravy is used in the aforementioned 'disco fries', a poutine derivative. Today, delicious poutines are made with a wide range of sauces, including marianara, black mole, a Parisienne (or, Allemande) sauce.
The Embarrassment of Poutine
Poutine used to be considered embarrassing to the local French-Canadian population, known for excellent high-cuisine. Considered a low, rural food, it was associated with backwardness, lacking cosmopolitan verve. But, with the rise of low-food popularity internationally, and the great interest of travelling gourmands in local recipes and low-foods, poutine has risen in local, as well as international interest. Nonetheless, the history of the embarrassment it has caused helps explain the difficulty in findin a good poutine.
In a November 1991 CBC report on poutine, Canada's largest broadcaster asked, on-camera, the Quebec premier Robert Bourassa if he liked poutine. He immediately walked away from the podium, "I'm sorry, I have to go, I have a really important meeting." His office refused to answer the question in follow-up calls. The same question to the opposition Parti-Quebecois leader Jacques Pariseau got the exact same response: he refused to answer, either directly on-camera, or in calls to his office.
Usually, to get a politician to refuse to answer a question requires finding a mistress somewhere. There can be no doubt that poutine was considered such a low food, it was embarrassing to be known to like it. But, it was also so common in Quebec, that to deny having even had it would have been laughably unbelievable.
Why would anyone consider eating poutine to be embarrassing? We don't know for sure, but it may stem from its association with the cheddar curds. In the eastern townships where poutine was invented (Warwick, Drummondville), it seems to have happened there due to the ready availability of these daily-fresh, briny curds, which people buy in small bags and snack on, like Doritos. It seems that some consider this to be a bit of a back-water habit - perhaps not unlike snacking on fried pork rinds in the American South. Take a back-water eating habit, and meld it together with a starchy plate of fried potatoes and a sauce, and, somehow the association rubs off.
Which is too bad for some. The history of low-food developing into fantastic cuisine is rich: lobsters, cassoulet, burritos, okra -- all of these were once down-market items, but whose flavor potential overcame their birth-station, and are now internationally favored.
Poutine-Related Frequently Asked Questions
I hear that fresh chedder cheese curds squeek when you eat them. Why is that? The fresh curds, eaten plain, right out of the bag on the day it was packed, will indeed squeek when you chomp on them. The reason is that fresh curds are extremely high humidity: 47% is a usual amount. When you bite through them, they rub against your teeth and squeek while they do so. If you aren't sure that you've heard the squeeking, then you haven't -- it is too loud to be uncertain. Only the freshest curds -- made that day -- produce the squeek.
Random Poutine Trivia
In 2000, then U.S. Presidential candidate George W. Bush was asked by a "reporter" how he responds to an endorsement from Canadian Prime Minister "Jean Poutine". Bush replied, "I appreciate his strong statment. He understands I believe in free trade. He understands I want to make sure our relations with our most important neighbor to the north of us, the Canadians, is strong and we'll work closely together." Of course, the prime minister at the time was Jean Chretien, and the "reporter" was Rick Mercer from the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation comedy TV show, "This Hour Has 22 Minutes".
The Black Flies cut an indie albumn "Poutine" in 1997, presently selling for US$5 at Amazon.
The famous California burger chain In-N-Out Burger has an off-menu item which qualifies as a poutine: French-fries, animal-style. , where the french fries are grilled with special sauce, onions and cheese. Note that In-N-Out never officially acknowledges their (otherwise) famous off-menu items (author's favorite: hamburger, protein style).
In Nov 2005, Canadian singer Shania Twain appeared on Martha Stewart's daily show to introduce the domestic diva to Poutine. "This actually smells good," Stewart says as Twain pulled what was actually an oven-baked fries in mushroom sauce. Neither Twain nor Stewart sampled the poutine on camera. The next day, the hits on this site shot up by a factor of five.